Introduction: The incidence of severe pediatric laryngeal stenosis has been increasing due to the progress in the intensive care, mainly due to the orotraqueal intubation for the breathing attendance. The objective of this paper is to study the etiology, age distribution, sex, associated pathologies, location and degree of the laryngeal stenosis.
Material and Methods: The charts of 25 children with laryngeal stenosis treated from 1985 to 1999 were reviewed.
Results: There were 11 (44%) males and 14 (56%) females, and 64% were younger than 2 years old. The major causes of the stenosis were: congenital (12%), external laryngeal trauma (4%) and prolonged airway intubation (84%). Among the latter, the mean time of orotracheal intubation was of 23,9 days and 71% had two or more intubations. The subglottic area was the site of the stenosis in 96% of the cases. Tracheotomy was accomplished in 92% of the cases and the laringotracheoplasty with cartilage graft was the definitive treatment in 44%.
Conclusions: Prolonged airway intubation is the major cause of laryngeal stenosis in children in our service. Patients younger than two years old, with multiple intubations and for long periods present higher risk for the development of the subglottic stenosis. The most common procedures in our service were the tracheotomy and the laryngotracheoplasty with cartilage graft.