Introduction Nasal obstruction is one of the main rhinologic complaints, and two diseases must be investigated as differential diagnosis: rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. Using traditional methods, the differential diagnosis between these diseases may be difficult. The morphometric study may be a useful tool for differential diagnosis and to define prognosis.
Objective Calculate the morphometric values of rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma and compare the average of variables obtained between the groups.
Methods The nasal mucus of 10 patients who had surgery in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Surgery of Head and Neck was studied; 5 had rhinosinusal polyposis and 5 had inverted papilloma. After the capture and print of corresponding data of each slide, the largest and smallest diameters of the nuclei were measured and the morphometric variables were calculated: average diameter, perimeter, ratio between largest and smallest diameter, volume, area, ratio of volume to area, form coefficient, contour index, and eccentricity.
Results We found a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups in the following morphometric variables: largest diameter, smallest diameter, average diameter, volume, area, perimeter, and ratio of volume to area, indicating that these parameters can be useful in diagnostic differentiation between these diseases.
Conclusion We founded morphometric variables higher in patients with inverted papilloma, which can be related to the neoplastic origin of the inverted papilloma. The analysis of nuclear parameters is an instrument of great value in the differential diagnosis between rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma.