Introduction: Endoscopy was born in 19th century, but it takes roots in very ancient times. Ever since the antiquity, numerous attempts were made for the exploration of hidden cavities in the human body. But only in the 19th century it became possible to carry out the first true endoscopes, as a consequence of the technological revolution.
Objective: To review the literature about the origin and the history of endoscopy.
Conclusion: A lot of people contributed to the progress of the endoscopy, but only three persons were the original and true innovators: Philipp Bozzini, Manuel Garcia and Max Nitze. Their inventions allowed the birth and the development of the modern endoscopy.