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Year: 2022  Vol. 26   Num. 4  - Oct/Dec
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1740200
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Original Article
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Frequency of Thyroid Gland Invasion by Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Role of Subglottic Extension
Author(s):
Hamdan Ahmed Pasha, Muhammad Wasif, Mubasher Ikram, Muhammad Hammad, Shayan Khalid Ghaloo, Zafar Rashid
Key words:
larynx carcinoma - laryngectomy - thyroid lobectomy
Abstract:

Introduction Management of the thyroid gland during laryngectomy has been controversial. The primary tumor may invade the thyroid gland by direct invasion or lymphovascular spread. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism are potential risks when lobectomy or total thyroidectomy are performed simultaneously.

Objective To report the frequency of thyroid gland involvement by primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in patients undergoing laryngectomy and to identify possible risk factors for thyroid gland involvement so that judicious excision of thyroid gland can be attained.

Methods We performed a retrospective review of 9 years. Data was collected from medical records of patients dated from December 2009 to October 2018. All patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent laryngectomy with lobectomy or total thyroidectomy were included in the present study.

Results We reviewed 151 laryngectomy records. A total of 130 surgeries included the thyroid gland with the excised specimen and were available for analysis. There were 124 males and 6 females. The mean age was 59.4 years old. The glottis was the most common subsite involved, in 70 patients, followed by 38 transglottic, 16 supraglottic and 03 subglottic tumors. On histology, 12 out of 130 excised thyroid glands were involved by squamous cell carcinoma. Only subglottic involvement (p = 0.01) was significantly associated with thyroid gland invasion (TGI). Type of laryngectomy, subsite of the primary tumor, thyroid cartilage involvement, neck nodal metastases, and perineural and lymphatic invasion by the primary tumor were not associated with TGI.

Conclusion Only subglottic involvement is associated with TGI; therefore, preoperative and intraoperative assessment is necessary prior to considering excision of the thyroid gland.

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