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Year: 2014  Vol. 18   Num. 3  - Julyy/Sept
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1373782
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Original Article
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Primary Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Head and Neck in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Patients in a Single Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Argentina
Author(s):
Marcelo Corti, Mara Villafae, Alicia Bistmans, Marina Narbaitz, Leonardo Gilardi
Key words:
non-Hodgkin lymphoma - head and neck - AIDS - HIV
Abstract:

Introduction: Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome.

Objective: The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases.

Results: Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/L. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%).

Conclusion: HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients.

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