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Year: 2022  Vol. 26   Num. 3  - Julyy/Sept
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1741027
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Original Article
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Influence of Metabolic Syndrome on the Recovery from Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Author(s):
Miguel S Breda, Ana Sousa Menezes, Tiago Gil Oliveira, Lus Dias
Key words:
hearing loss - idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss - metabolic syndrome - hearing recovery
Abstract:

Introduction Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a disabling otologic urgency whose ethiopathogenesis is still controversial. Only in recent years metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been implicated as a possible aggravating factor in the prognosis of recovery from ISSHL.

Objective To assess whether the preexistence of MetS interferes on hearing recovery levels.

Methods Retrospective cohort study composed of adult (> 18 years old) ISSHL patients admitted for treatment between January 2015 and December 2019. To diagnose ISSHL, we used pure-tone audiometry, and identified MetS patients based on the criteria of the United States National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). The treatment protocol comprised hospitalization for five days for the intravenous administration of dexamethasone, audiometric surveillance, imaging and blood analyses, and, based on recovery, the planning of rescue treatments (intratympanic administration of dexamethasone and/or hyperbaric oxygen). The Siegel criteria were used to evaluate the hearing outcomes.

Results The final sample was composed of 81 patients, 48 without MetS (nMetS) and 33 with MetS. Regarding the Siegel recovery category, the nMetS group had significantly better results (p = 0.001), with 44% of complete recoveries against 6% in the MetS, and 58% of the MetS patients had the worst outcome, contrasting with 27% in the nMetS group. The nMetS group had an overall better evolution in terms of hearing recovery and had a significant improvement in the median hearing gain (20.6 dB versus 8.8 dB; p = 0.008). Additionally, the multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of MetS is a significant risk factor for a worse outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.10-0.85).

Conclusion Regardless of age, gender, the initial audiometry threshold, and autoimmunity, MetS is a clear risk factor for a worse outcome regarding the recovery of hearing after ISSHL. Objective To assess whether the preexistence of MetS interferes on hearing recovery levels. Methods Retrospective cohort study composed of adult (> 18 years old) ISSHL patients admitted for treatment between January 2015 and December 2019. To diagnose ISSHL, we used pure-tone audiometry, and identified MetS patients based on the criteria of the United States National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). The treatment protocol comprised hospitalization for five days for the intravenous administration of dexamethasone, audiometric surveillance, imaging and blood analyses, and, based on recovery, the planning of rescue treatments (intratympanic administration of dexamethasone and/or hyperbaric oxygen). The Siegel criteria were used to evaluate the hearing outcomes. Results The final sample was composed of 81 patients, 48 without MetS (nMetS) and 33 with MetS. Regarding the Siegel recovery category, the nMetS group had significantly better results (p = 0.001), with 44% of complete recoveries against 6% in the MetS, and 58% of the MetS patients had the worst outcome, contrasting with 27% in the nMetS group. The nMetS group had an overall better evolution in terms of hearing recovery and had a significant improvement in the median hearing gain (20.6 dB versus 8.8 dB; p = 0.008). Additionally, the multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of MetS is a significant risk factor for a worse outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.10-0.85). Conclusion Regardless of age, gender, the initial audiometry threshold, and autoimmunity, MetS is a clear risk factor for a worse outcome regarding the recovery of hearing after ISSHL.

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